Ultraflocculation is a process by which a suspension of particles, to which a flocculant is added, is treated in an intense hydrodynamic field ( G 103 s-1) for a short time period.
Publisher Google Scholar Letterman,.D., Amirtharajah,.
Also, there is no negative zeta-potential region all over the selected cross section (Park.As shown by the results in Fig.Publisher Google Scholar Chiemchaisri,., Passananon,., Ngo,.H.Publisher Google Scholar Lu,.Q., Chen,.Since EC process produces very reverse raffle app corrosive water for metals and concrete, it is necessary that the pH of settled water must be adjusted by alkali substance to prevent severe corrosion of submerged metals and concrete, and control high levels of dissolved Al (Kawamura (2000).However, PDA technique, as well as zeta potential measurement (Gray (2005) which requires a relatively long time for responding, are not feasible for determining the optimal coagulant dosage with real-time because influent turbidities and the coagulant demands are quite time-variant.(6) where, A Current density (A/m2 B pH, C NaCl concentration (mg/l D time (min) From the above equation it seems that NaCl concentrttaion highly influences the COD (lignin) removal and the interation of pH and NaCl concentration is also highest amongst the above process.Because the jar-test technique, which has been used to determine the minimal coagulant concentration, and the residual turbidity of the water uses mixing device with back mixing type, it is suggested that this could involve the problem caused by the use of excess coagulant with.
The range â5 to 0 indicates that the coagulated water is negatively charged, from 0 to 5 that it is positively charged, with 0 indicating electrical neutrality.In: Droppo,.G., Leppard,.G., Liss,.N., Milligan,.G.In electro coagulation process, the coagulant is generated in-situ by electro-oxidation of anodes.The residual Al salts, not participated in the charge neutralisation during the Al hydrolysis reaction, are changed into insoluble Al hydroxide.Often, PACl can provide organics removal without as significant a decrease in pH (Delphos and Wesner (2005 Wei.Irrespective of the main inlet water flow rate, the measured zeta-potential is higher on the lower part than that on the upper part.Therefore, the removal of NOM (Listiarini.The pH is often lowered by adding carbon dioxide or an acid.Industrial Water Pollution Control, 3rd., McGraw-Hill, NY, USA.Various types of rapid mixing have been developed.